The camel corps on the Hexi Corridor

2022-08-04 0 By

In the ranks of the Kuomintang army and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, there had been such a special unit with a special designation — the Camel Corps.It was founded in Lanzhou, stationed in Yumen, and finally advanced to Xinjiang. It made special contributions in consolidating northwest frontier defense, defending yumen oil mine, jiuquan uprising, and suppressing bandits in Gansu and Xinjiang provinces.Drawing lessons from British and French experience to form camel Corps to consolidate frontier Defense The Chinese People’s Liberation Army enters Jiuquan According to “Gansu Province Annals • Animal Husbandry annals”, the camel military began in Gansu province.In 104 BC, Li Guangli set out from Dunhuang to attack Dayuan.Later, in his second expedition against Dayuan, a large number of civilian camels in Jiuquan and other counties were enlisted for military service.Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty also said in the Luntai Zhao: “I had a solid diet of Wine and donkey and a solid diet of Yumen to welcome the army”.Camel is not only known as the “boat of the desert”, because of its physiological structure of large red blood cells, a large number of hemoglobin, but also adapted to the air thin high altitude area.However, there was no established camel army in modern Chinese military history before the victory of Anti-Japanese War.In the autumn of 1946, the kuomintang (KMT), northwest XingYuan given mazong mountain of hexi corridor in the northwest border with foreign invasion, and the region as the gobi desert, more ordinary infantry and cavalry restricted by environment is difficult to effectively combat task, carries out – and at the same time in order to defend the yumen oil security, suggested that the defense department to follow during the second world war, Britain, France and other countries in north Africa to establish a camel cavalry institution,Camels were used instead of horses.In the autumn of 1947, the army independent Camel Corps (referred to as camel Corps) was established in Lanzhou (later moved to Yumen).The regiment has four camel companies, one artillery company, one heavy machine gun company, as well as detachments of communication, transportation and sanitation. The units directly under the regiment include camel research room, veterinary room, camel experimental team, grazing team and pasture, forming a relatively complete combat support system.The regiment has 3,586 officers and men, equipped with more than 4,000 camels and horses and various weapons.The first regiment commander he Xinmin, ningxiang, Hunan province, was born in the 14th whampoa Military Academy.Camel corps was a novelty at that time, and the establishment of rules and training had to start from scratch.In his memoirs, He Xinmin pointed out, “Camels were originally used only as a means of transportation, but it is a first in modern Chinese military history to use camels to form combat regiments.There are no rules for organization, organization or training.Also recalls the vice Zhu Ju Ming tuan tuan, the officers and soldiers was filled with the enthusiasm of the new arms, in the identification, the military camel breeding, feeding, management and training, regimental headquarters to Inner Mongolia camels laboratory has hundreds of professional la shan flag to carry out the investigation, after writing have the camel at the beginning of learning “” camel manual operation” “camel things such as books, as the training materials.Soon after the formation of the anti-aircraft gun camel corps stationed in Yumen Oil Mine to participate in jiuquan uprising, the national situation gradually became clear.In May 1949, the oil miners in Yumen launched a struggle against hunger. The camel corps in the mines sympathized with the workers and did not want to suppress by force.Regiment commander He Xinmin was warned by the Northwest Military and political affairs Office, and the third company and the heavy machine gun company of the Mining camel Corps were also withdrawn as punishment.In September 1949, the Kuomintang eighth supply area commander Ceng Zhenwu into Xinjiang and Tao Shiyue discuss peaceful liberation matters, passing through Yumen, he Xinmin to do everything possible to strictly organize troops, unity officers and soldiers, earnestly shoulder the responsibility of ensuring yumen oil mine safety, and maintain the local order outside the pass.On the 24th of the same month, the Kuomintang troops in Jiuquan area electrified uprising;The next day, the PLA armored corps stationed in yumen oil mine, camel corps thus gained a new life.The camel Corps at the time of jiuquan uprising had 942 officers and men, equipped with 648 guns and 119,654 rounds of ammunition.He Xinmin (30, colonel, retained his post), then head of the regiment;Ding Changzhen (33, from Yidu, Shandong province, deputy colonel, Lieutenant Colonel);Wu Jinghuan (32 years old, from Tieling, Liaoning Province, regiment attached, colonel);Lin Yaodong (37, from Luoshan, Henan province, director of the political work Office, lieutenant Colonel).After the jiuquan uprising, the local situation was unstable, and the Camel corps quickly threw itself into new battles.On the one hand, the PLA has not been in place before the active counterinsurgency.The next day after the founding of The People’s Republic of China, kuomintang agents incited some officers and men of the Xinjiang Guard regiment, which had revolted, to rebel in Anxi, and attempted to attack the Yumen oil mine.Camel corps under the guidance of zhao Wenxing, a representative of the PEOPLE’s Liberation Army, defeated the rebels in Changma Fort and captured more than 300 people.On the other hand, a card was set up to prevent rout.Camel corps in Yumen county bus station set up a checkpoint, check the past vehicles, the Kuomintang military and political system personnel and was taken to lanzhou residents of the business a total of more than 20,000 people and more than 100 cars intercepted.To accept the reorganization of the Brigand Suppression Sut to support the construction of the camel corps in North Africa during World War II.Screen shot of the movie Patton.In mid-October 1949, the camel Corps moved to Gaotai and was reorganized into the Camel Riding Corps of the Third Army of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army.Most of the leading officials, including He Xinmin, remained in office.According to Zhu Ju Ming memories, at the beginning of the founding of new China, the northwest bandits, camel corps marched with perennial grassland and gobi, perform the task, however qi special in lead WuSiMan bandits department, “camel soldiers run fast, fast forward, more than 10 days across the southern xinjiang gobi desert in thousands of kilometers, wavered, bandit, the entire JiuJian first made the meritorious military service”.In Dunhuang, Anxi area encircle and suppress the remnants of Usman and captured bandit leader usman in the war, camel corps also set a meritorious service.After the mission of counterinsurgency and bandit suppression, with the comprehensive development of large-scale economic construction in New China, the Regiment gave full play to its characteristics of being familiar with the geography of northwest frontier and adapting to the combat life in high-altitude areas, and actively cooperated with the geological department to carry out field survey work.In the foothills of qilian Mountains and Qaidam Basin, officers and soldiers of camel Corps and geological team are everywhere, security guards, logistics support……The officers and men forged a deep friendship with the geologists.Through the ages, the use of animals, especially livestock, for military purposes has not been in history.Camel corps also has its place in Chinese and foreign military history.Longyuan earth once had such a special army, can be called the local culture of the unique scenery.Today, although there is no need for camel soldiers or cavalry to charge into battle, in some special circumstances and special tasks, camels are still loyal comrades of human beings.Finally, it should be mentioned that he Xinmin, the head of the camel Corps, worked as a counsellor in the Counsellors’ Office of the Hunan Provincial People’s Government after being transferred to the local area. He persevered in studying camels all his life and completed China’s first relevant monograph camel Science.The book was published in 1983, which filled in the blank of animal husbandry research in Our country.This article commemorates the birth of the camel Corps 75 years ago and the camel bells on the Hexi Corridor that have disappeared in history.Writing by Shi Yong